We would like to give thanks to the Hawaiian knowledge holders who generously shared their mana'o and sources surrounding the significance of the ipu.
M.Beckwith, ‘Hawaiian Mythology’. U H Press. 1970.
Jenkins, ‘The Hawaiian Calabash’.Editions limited. 1989.
T.R.Hiroa, ‘Arts and Crafts of Hawaii’. Bishop Museum Press. 1957.
S.M.Kamakau, ‘Tails and Traditions of the People of Old|Nā Mo‘olelo a ka Po‘e Kahiko’. Bishop Museum Press. 1991.
Online Hawaiian Dictionary
Personal comms. Kumu Auli`i Mitchell. 14.03.2018