Peter
Peter the T. rex Scientific Report

Bone Modification

Paleoecology and paleoenvironment can be determined by examining bone modification to the carcass. The more obvious and most remarked upon modifications are tooth marks (McClain et al. 2018) as these provide a useful source of information as to the potential trace-maker. However, the causes and effects of bone modification should be examined for behavioral interpretations as well (Jacobsen and Bromley 2009). The pre-burial history of the specimen must also be studied to elucidate possible scenarios that may have caused bone modifcations before death, at the time of death, or thereafter.


There are areas of deeply eroded articular surface on the ischium and femur that appear pathologic. On the ischium, the proximal articulation has a groove 1.5 cm deep, 10 cm long (Fig. 20). The lateral condyle on the distal end of the femur as has a circular, deep depression (Fig. 21). Future work includes internal analyses using the vanguard of new X-ray technologies such as CT, XMT, MRI, as well as synchrotron imaging to allow a high-resolution three-dimensional approach to diagnosing this observation and examining the associated histology.

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Peter
Peter the T. rex Scientific Report

The femur and tibia have a variety of tooth mark traces, some that penetrated and damaged the periosteum while other traces left tooth strike marks that did not penetrate. There is a group of three parallel tooth marks, cf. Knethichnus paralleum (Jacobsen and Bromley 2009), spaced approximately 20 mm apart on the surface of the left femur and measure 40 mm long (Fig. 21). There is another set of Knethichnus paralleum that are smaller and more narrowly placed bite marks 10 cm away from the larger set. The left tibial shaft shows a very large single tooth strike that has not penetrated the cortical bone but has left an elongated, shallow groove or indentation.

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