How well do you really know Tāmaki Makaurau?

They’re places Aucklanders, and indeed New Zealanders, know well. But overriding narratives about their history don’t tell us the full story.

Curator, History Lucy Mackintosh unearths the deeper and complex histories of our city in her new book, Shifting Grounds: Deep Histories of Tāmaki Makaurau Auckland.

Co-winner of the Ernest Scott Prize for History 2022

Winner of the ARANZ (Archives and Records Association of New Zealand) Ian Wards Prize 2022

Winner of the NZSA (New Zealand Society of Authors) Heritage Book Award for Non-Fiction 2022

Finalist for an Ockham New Zealand Book Award 2022

A new approach to understanding our past

Learn more about Lucy and her innovative approach to uncovering our hidden history within Shifting Grounds.

Lucy Mackintosh has been working as Curator of History at Auckland War Memorial Museum since 2017. In her role, she is responsible for collecting, researching, exhibiting and unlocking the stories of our social history and war collections.

Over the last twenty-five years, she has researched and written extensively about history, heritage and material culture in Tāmaki Makaurau Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand and various places around the world.

In her new book Shifting Grounds, published by Bridget Williams Books, Lucy unearths the lesser-known histories of three iconic landscapes: Pukekawa/Auckland Domain, Maungakiekie/One Tree Hill and the Ōtuataua Stonefields at Ihumātao. Lucy approaches these landscapes as an archive, delving into specific places and examining the broader questions that arise from them.

Lucy explores places such as the early Māori gardens of the Ōtuataua Stonefields, Te Wherowhero’s cottage in the Auckland Domain, the Ihumātao mission station, John Logan Campbell’s olive grove, Chinese market gardens in the Domain and sites of remembrance on Maungakiekie. Through these sites, Lucy offers the reader an understanding of histories that have not been written into books or inscribed upon memorials, but which still resonate through Auckland and beyond.



Lucy discusses the research behind Shifting Grounds and why she chose the hill the Museum stands upon as a site to explore.

One of the places you explore in your book is Pukekawa, the hill on which Tāmaki Paenga Hira Auckland Museum stands. How much did working at the Museum influence this inclusion? What was it that initially captivated your interest in this specific location?

The book is based on a PhD thesis, which I began writing in 2013, before I began working as Curator of History at the Museum. But travelling through the Domain on the way to and from the Museum since I began working here in 2017, and getting to know the Museum collections relating to the Domain, has certainly helped with my thinking about it.

I wanted to write about Pukekawa because I was aware of histories there - including the building of a house for Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (the Waikato leader who later became the first Māori King), and the market gardens of the Ah Chee family - that have been overlooked and largely erased from the landscape but are important for understanding this city’s past and present. I was interested in resurfacing these histories and exploring how they interact with and challenge the carefully crafted 20th-century histories that now dominate the park, with the Museum and the surrounding leisure landscape.


What was it that inspired you to research these deep histories and write this book? How long has the process taken?

The process of writing this book began in 2013, when I started the PhD thesis, but its roots go back to the late 1990s, when I first started working as a public historian on places, sites, and landscapes around Auckland, including the Ōtuataua Stonefields and the nearby Pūkaki Lagoon, both of which I write about in this book. I found that there were deep, complex and difficult histories embedded in certain places in the city that still resonate in local communities and across the city yet have not made it into the city’s monuments, history books or collective memory. The stories that I came across as a public historian, as well as those I researched as a PhD student, and those I have come across more recently as curator of history at Auckland Museum, are all wrapped into this work.

What I wanted to do was write a history that starts with the ground and works its way upwards and outwards from there. Starting with rocks, lava flows, a grassy paddock, the remains of a garden, the site of a cottage, or a monument, it explores the histories that unfolded in these places, and connects them up with the broader historical context of the city, the nation and the globe. Looking at three places across time – from early human arrivals to the present day – it considers how histories told from particular places, at particular moments of time, might open up new stories and perspectives that can challenge and even change the way we currently tend to think about Auckland’s past and its present.


Your Auckland Museum colleague, Matua Bobby Newson wrote the foreword for your book. How did that come about?

Bobby provided a huge amount of guidance throughout the writing of the book. Not long after I started working at the Museum, Bobby and I went for a walk around the Domain and talked about some of the histories there, and since then he has supported me with many aspects of the book, including working with mana whenua. Working with Bobby has been one of the highlights of writing this book, and I am honoured and hugely grateful to have Bobby’s mihi karakia opening the book. His words capture the essence of what I am trying to do in this book, and they provide the passageway into the stories the book tells.

Auckland Museum objects in Shifting Grounds

Shifting Grounds features a range of objects from the Museum's collections. Check out a few of them below.

Items excavated from the Ah Chee family market gardens; AWMM, 2014.51.1. Learn more.

On display in the Tāmaki Herenga Waka Stories of Auckland galleries.

'Manukau Heads from the back of the pa at Pūkaki' watercolour by John Grant Johnson; AWMM, PH-1958-1-15441. Learn more.

Olive oil produced from the grove at Maungakiekie in 2015.

On display in the Tāmaki Herenga Waka Stories of Auckland galleries. On loan from Lucy Mackintosh.

Shifting Grounds in the media


Review by Anna Rankin

"Entering into a co-authorship with the land and the voices of the past and present, Mackintosh masterfully critiques the notion of a singular truth, deftly and lyrically weaving stories of relation and integration into over- looked and erased histories across the isthmus."

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Ockham Week: The Book of Auckland

Review by Emilie Rākete

'Shifting Grounds is constantly unsettling broad assumptions we hold about Auckland’s history'

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Learning to Look Tāmaki Makaurau in the Face: A Review of Shifting Grounds

Review by Anna Rawhiti-Connell

"In a way, the entire book answers the question of why so many of us might not know our city’s deeper stories. It does so by centering that which has been revealed by the landscape, and in many cases, subsequently ignored and not deemed to be “history”".

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Best Books of 2021

“A fascinating, deeply researched and handsomely designed hardback…”

Shifting Grounds was included in New Zealand Listener's 'Best Books of 2021' list, published in their 27 November 2021 issue.

The book was also included in the 20 November 2021 issue as one of six 'hard-hitting' books for the summer.


'If you need a monument, look around you': Rethinking Auckland history

"There aren't many written histories of Tāmaki Makaurau. This one's a beauty. It began life as a PhD thesis and has been thoughtfully reconceived into a book for all of us..."

Simon Wilson reviewed Shifting Grounds in the Saturday 20 November edition of NZ Herald's Canvas magazine.




The Shifting Grounds of Tamaki Makaurau

Listen to Lucy's fascinating interview with RNZ's with Kathryn Ryan on Nine to Noon.




Review: Shifting Grounds: Deep Histories of Tāmaki Makaurau Auckland

"In Shifting Grounds, Lucy Mackintosh explores three places in Tāmaki Makaurau-Auckland where she says, “the landscape is an archive,” places the past can still speak and the landscapes she has chosen are among the most eloquent."

Read David Veart's review of Shifting Grounds on Kete Books.




Off the beaten track with Kennedy Warne

Kennedy Warne discusses two of the landscapes featured in Shifting Grounds on RNZ's Nine to Noon.




Entangled with the land

"A popular 1950s book on the history of Auckland referred to the city as a “white man’s town”. A new book by Lucy Mackintosh, curator of history at Auckland War Memorial Museum/Tamaki Paenga Hira, puts the lie to that perception.

"By excavating less visible histories, she reveals a complex, fascinating and intimate picture of Auckland’s past, woven through the volcanic landscapes of Tāmaki Makaurau."

Read Kennedy Warne's review of Shifting Grounds on E-Tangata.